Corporate Commercial

we are provides legal services in establishing a limited liability company (PT), domestic capital investment and foreign capital investment (PT PMA), partnership, foundations, International Non Government Organization and cooperatives.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Litigation

We provide superior and unrelenting advocacy. Despite the fact that our lawyers have a proven record of courtroom success, we also routinely use mediation, moderated settlement and other forms of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)

Labor Immigration

We are provides legal service in handling manpower, which includes the drafting or reviewing work contract/agreement, company regulations or collective labor agreement, advising on termination of employment and other labor problems.

Intellectual Property Rights

Indonesia is significantly revising the intellectual property right laws in order to meet the international standards. Our team of IPR will help our Clients in handling the cases of IPR registration and protection.

Company Search/Investigation

We are provides legal service in conducting company search/investigation with respect to client’s Inquiries and will issue a Company Search Report.

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Divorce and Marital Dissolutions in Indonesia


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In Indonesia, divorce and marital dissolution have been governed by the 1974 Marriage Act and its implementation rules.
A divorce petition must be filed at the local district court for Non-Moslems, and local Religious Court for Moslems. There are certain marital dissolution reasons according to 1974 Marriage Law and Islamic Law, they are:

Marriage Law of 1974

Pursuant to Marriage Law, a marriage may be terminated due to several reasons as follows:
  1. Death of either party
  2. Divorce
  3. Upon court's decision

Death

The death to either party will automatically terminate the marriage.

Divorce

One of the means to dissolve a marriage is by divorce. Divorce may only be executed before a court session, before the district court for Non-Moslems and before the religious court for Moslems. Therefore, either one of the parties wanting to divorce needs to file a divorce petition to the court.
The legal grounds of filing for divorce have been regulated in the Marriage Law, which are, in the event one of the parties:
  1. has committed adultery, is an alcoholic, is addicted to drugs, is a gambler or exhibits other vices which are difficult to cure;
  2. has left the other spouse for two consecutive years, without consent and without legitimate reasons or the absence of reasons beyond his control;
  3. has been sentenced to imprisonment for five (5) consecutive years or a longer period;
  4. has resorted to cruelty or severe ill treatment, endangering the life of the other spouse;
  5. has developed a disability or disease, preventing from fulfilling the duties of husband or wife; or
  6. has irreconcilable differences.

Upon Court's Decision: Annulment

Marriage annulment means that any marriage may be cancelled if both parties cannot fulfill the conditions for the marriage. A marriage annulment can only be decided by a court of law.
Families in a straight line of descent and above the husband or wife (For example: father, mother, grandfather etc of husband or wife.) , an authorized/appointed official, and anyone directly possessing legal interest in the marriage may file a request for marriage annulment.
Any request for marriage annulment may be submitted to a court within the jurisdiction where the marriage was conducted or within the jurisdiction of the residence of the married couple (in accordance with Article 38 (1) Government Regulation No. 9 Year 1975 regarding the Implementing Rules of 1974 Marriage Law) the husband, or the wife. A marriage annulment may be filed for the following reasons:
  1. the marriage guardian (wali) is illegal; or
  2. the marriage was not attended by two witnesses.
  3. The marriage was performed in front of unauthorized marriage registrar.
The right to annul a marriage by a husband or wife based on such reasons becomes null and void if they live together as a married couple and can show the marriage certificate issued by the unauthorized officer of the marriage registry. In this instance the marriage has to be conducted again in order to make it legal.
The husband or wife may request an annulment of their marriage, if the marriage was conducted before an unauthorized officer of a marriage registry, or if the marriage was conducted under a threat that violates the law, or if there is a misunderstanding between the husband and wife.
His/her right will be null and void if the threat has stopped or if the misunderstood party? realizes the situation, but doesn't use his/her right to request for marriage annulment within six (6) months after living together as married couple. Example of a “misunderstood condition” would be if the husband thought the wife was a virgin, but in fact she was not – so I misunderstood about her personal conditions.
Annulment of a marriage commences upon the court decision and is permanent and legal binding and applies as of the time of marriage was conducted. However, such a decision is not retroactively effective to:
  1. children born from the marriage;
  2. husband or wife acting with good intention, except against joint property, if the annulment is based on a previous marriage. The annulment decision is retroactively effective to the joint property of the parties in the event the marriage was entered and one of the couples was not legally free to marry.
  3. a third party, so long as he/she has the rights based on good faith.

Islamic Law
In Islam, a marriage may be terminated due to several reasons, namely:
  1. Death of either party
  2. Thalak
  3. Judge's Decision
  4. Khulu
  5. Li'an
  6. Ila'
  7. Murtad (apostate)
When a husband or wife passes away, their marriage is automatically terminated. When a wife passes away, her husband doesn't have any legal difficulties in marrying another woman, but can remarry immediately. But, when a husband passes away, his wife has to wait for four (4) months and 10 days before she can marry another man.
Literally, thalak means to release (abandon). Thalak or divorce is the right given to a man and is an action of releasing a woman from the marriage. In Islam, this method of divorce has been stipulated, but it is accompanied by the explanation from the Prophet Mohammad that God doesn't like divorce.
Divorce through a judge's decision may be due to several reasons, such as, among others, that the husband is unable to provide the basic necessities of life, the husband commits torture against his wife, the husband vanishes (being far away from or not being near his wife), or that the husband is serving a term in prison.
Fasakh is the cancellation of marriage agreement (akad) and the termination of a marriage between a husband and wife due to damage taking place in the marriage agreement (akad) or due to sudden reasons that may hamper the continuation of the marriage agreement (akad). For instance, it could be due to a problem in the family relationships. Fasakh will cause the marriage agreement (akad) to be annulled.
Khulu' is a divorce given by a husband to his wife with payment to the wife. Khulu's is required by Islam for balancing the thalak right for a husband when there is a hatred that cannot be settled peacefully.
A marriage may be terminated due to li'an, because the person making the li'an in the fith oath says that God's curse is upon him/herself if he/she is a liar. As a result of li'an, the marriage is terminated forever. If the accusing husband denies the birth of a child by saying that the child is not his, the child is not the offspring of this husband any longer, but legally becomes an illegitimate child and becomes the child of accused wife. The child cannot inherit from his/her father (the accusing husband). If the child is female, her guardian is a judge of justice, if the child will marry someone else.
Murtad (apostate) is when a Moslem abandons Islam. If a husband or wife is judged apostate, their marriage is terminated due to their action.
Marriage dissolution based on the grounds of thalakli’an, and khuluk’ shall only valid in the event they are conducted at the religious court.

Annulment according to Compilation of Islamic Law

Compilation of Islamic Law which is enacted under Presidential Instruction Number 1 of 1991 also governs marriage annulment under several reasons:
  1. Polygamy conducted by husband without the permission from the Religious Court;
  2. The bride is not legally free to marry and still in a marriage with other man;
  3. The bride in the period of ‘iddah of her previous husband, Iddah means a waiting period where a woman is not allowed to marry other man. The period may vary according to the reason of her previous marriage dissolution i.e. 130 days due to death, and 90 days due to divorce;
  4. The marriage is not comply with the minimum of age requirement as governed by the 1974 Marriage Law;
  5. Married performed without wali nikah (marriage guardian) or performed with unauthorized one;
  6. Marriage performed under threat
 Marriage annulment is also known as fasakh is the cancellation of marriage agreement (akad) and the termination of a marriage between a husband and wife due to defect taking place in the marriage agreement (akad) or due to sudden reasons that may hamper the continuation of the marriage agreement (akad). For instance, it could be due to a problem in the family relationships. Fasakh  will cause the marriage agreement (akad) to be annulled.
Annulment petition can be filed at the local religious court having jurisdiction over the residence of husband or wife or may be submitted to the local religious court within the jurisdiction where the marriage was conducted. Court decree on marriage annulment shall take effect retroactively since the date of marriage took place.
Authorized parties to file for annulment petition are:
  • Family in a upper and lower straight line such as parents, and siblings;
  • Husband or wife;
  • Authorized officers responsible in supervising the performance of marriage as governed by law;
  • Other parties who aware of any marriage defect in terms of marriage requirements as imposed by the prevailing law.

Tuesday, September 18, 2018

Employment Dismissal Procedures


Dismissal Procedures

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I.  Dismissal
The principle of National Labor Regulations on workers dismissal is that it should be prevented or in some conditions, prohibited. Nonetheless, if it is inevitable, the relevant authorities must approve every termination of employment. Exceptions to approval for termination noted in Labor Law No. 13 / 2013 are the following:

Workers are on probation
Worker submitted a resignation request in writing based on their free will.
Workers have reached retirement age
Workers passed away

Workers face criminal proceedings for more than six months and cannot perform their work, or are found guilty by the court before the end of the six-month period

According to Labor Law No. 13/2013, workers dismissal is prohibited if the reason for dismissal relates to the following:

Workers activities in a labour union.
Workers report any illegal action conducted by the employer to the authorities.
Workers ideology, religion, race, gender, physical condition, marital status, etc.
Workers are being ill continuously for less than 1 year as stated in a physician’s certificate.

Workers become permanently disabled or sick for work-related reasons and the healing period is unpredictable.
Workers are being on State duty.
Workers are required to carry out religious duties as approved by the authorities.
Reasons of marriage, pregnancy, birth or miscarriage for female workers.

The Labor Law No. 13 of 2013 stipulates permissible causes for termination. These include “regular” reasons such as breach by an employee of his or her employment contract, company regulation or collective labor agreement, upon due warning and “serious” reasons including theft, providing false information to the employer, dangerous or immoral conduct or similar behaviors. National Labor Regulations previously expressly permitted termination for such “serious” reasons without a court order or automatic dismissal. However, by the provision of the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) No. 012/PUU-I/2003, termination based on “serious” reasons requires approval of the Industrial Relations Court (PHI); thus, workers who were alleged conducting serious offense could not be automatically dismiss
The Manpower Law also recognizes certain economic imperatives as well. An employer is entitled to dismiss an individual employee in the event of bankruptcy, or upon a change of status, merger, or consolidation of the employer.

A similar entitlement to terminate exists under Article 164(3) of the Labor Law No. 13 of 2003, where a company is closed down for reasons of efficiency (i.e., without two consecutive years of financial losses) or due to two consecutive years of financial losses or force majeure. The Article goes on to stipulate higher termination benefits for termination for reasons of efficiency without such financial losses.

From the date of Labor Law No. 13/2003 issuance until 2012, Article 164(3) has been used to justify downsizing a part of the workforce for reasons of efficiency, whereas the Article actually expressly contemplates the closing of the company as the triggering event. There is no other provision of the Labor Law that expressly permits downsizing the workforce for reasons of efficiency. However, based on the Constitution Court decision on 20 June 2012 (Case No. 19/PUU-IX/2011), the inclusion of the word “efficiency” in Article 164(3) cannot, in and of itself, be interpreted as the basis or right for a company to terminate an employee in Indonesia. The desire of an employer to make labor costs more efficient through the reduction of the workforce is not a proper legal basis for termination in Indonesia.

The Constitutional Court decision also addressed the meaning of Article 164(3) directly. In a move to remove any uncertainty or ambiguity in the Article, the Court stated that the provisions could only be invoked where the company in question needed, in fact, to be permanently closed down. Temporary or threatened closure was not sufficient to allow an employer the termination rights specified in the Article. In the view of the Court, any contrary interpretation would be inconsistent with the Constitution.

Under Article 156 of Labor Law No. 13 of 2003, termination of the employment relationship gives rise to termination payments that include severance pay and /or long service pay, as well as compensation pay for entitlements required under a collective agreement.

The extent of the termination package depends on the circumstances of termination. In the event of a termination on the grounds of grave wrongdoings or absence for five consecutive workdays without explanation, the worker is not entitled to any severance pay or long service pay. However, if a termination conducted on the grounds of violation of the terms of employment, the worker is entitled to severance pay and rewards.

Components of Termination Payment under Labor Law No. 13 / 2003
1. Severance Pay (Article 156.2)
1 month salary for a service period of less than 1 year;
2 months salary for a service period of 1 year but less than 2 years;
3 months salary for a service period of 2 years but less than 3 years;
4 months salary for a service period of 3 years but less than 4 years;
5 months salary for a service period of 4 years but less than 5 years;
6 months salary for a service period of 5 years but less than 6 years;
7 months salary for a service period of 6 years but less than 7 years;
8 months salary for a service period of 7 years but less than 8 years;
9 months salary for a service period of 8 years or more ;


2. Long Service Pay (Article 156.3)
2 months salary for a service period of 3 years or more, but less than 6 years;
3 months salary for a service period of 6 years but less than 9 years;
4 months salary for a service period of 9 years but less than 12 years;
5 months salary for a service period of 12 years but less than 15 years;
6 months salary for a service period of 15 years but less than 18 years;
7 months salary for a service period of 18 years but less than 21 years;
8 months salary for a service period of 21 years but less than 24 years;
10 months’ salary for a service period of 24 years or more.


3. Compensation of Rights (Article 156.4)
Compensation for annual leave to which the employee is entitled, but which is not taken by the employee;
Compensation for travel expenses or costs for the employee and his/her family to return to the original location of hire;
If the plan to terminate an employee is disputed, the termination process may take up to 140 working days to complete, from bipartite negotiations through to a Supreme Court decision (i.e., if the Industrial Relations Court decision is appealed). Under Article 155, during the termination process, the employer is still required to pay salary and other benefits to employee. However, under Article 93, if the worker stops working, the employer is not required to continue paying. Prior to terminating employment, there are several steps to be taken.
Bipartite Negotiations

This is the first step that should be taken prior to employment termination. Employer and workers (or if applicable the union representative) should meet and negotiate to reach an amicable termination settlement. The bipartite negotiation process must be settled at the latest within 30 calendar days after negotiations start.

Anything agreed or disagreed in the negotiations should be recorded in detail in Minutes of Meeting signed by both parties. The Local Manpower office can provides a sample of Minutes of Meeting.

If a settlement is reached, a Collective Agreement (Kesepakatan Bersama) is established and signed. The Collective Agreement must be drawn up, signed by the parties, and witnessed by the mediator. The Collective Agreement, together with relevant evidence, must be registered by both parties to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI).

If no consensus is reached in the negotiations, one or both parties must submit a dispute letter together with the relevant evidence to the Local Labour Office.

Conciliation

Should bipartite negotiations fail to reach a mutual agreement and employement termination is inevitable, both parties will be offered by the Local Labour Office to settle the dispute through Conciliation. If the parties refuse to settle the dispute through Conciliation, the Local Manpower Office will transfer the dispute to a mediator (mediation process).

The parties must submit a written application to the conciliator whom they have agreed to from the list of conciliators published in the Local Manpower Office. Within seven working days after the application is submitted, the conciliator must review the dispute. At the lastest on the eighth working day, the conciliator must hold the first conciliation session. This conciliation process should take place within 30 days after receipt of the application.

The conciliator then will issue a recommendation to settle the dispute to both parties. If both parties agree to the recommendation, within 3 days the conciliator must assist the parties to prepare a collective agreement, which should be registered to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI).

If one of the parties does not accept the recommendation, a lawsuit to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) can be filed.

  
Mediation

If bipartite negotiations fail to reach an agreement and the parties refused to settle through a conciliation process, the relevant Local Manpower Office officials will transfer the dispute to mediation.
Within 7 days after a request for mediation is received, the intermediary officer from the Local Manpower Office should review the case and immediately commence a mediation process which should be completed within 30 days.

The mediator will issue a recommendation to both parties. If both parties agree, within 3 days the mediator must assist the parties to prepare a collective agreement, which should be registered to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI).

If one of the parties does not accept the recommendation, a lawsuit to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) can be filed.

Industrial Relations Courts (PHI)

A lawsuit filed to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) must be supplemented with the minutes of mediation or conciliation process. The plaintiff may revoke the lawsuit at any time before the defendant gives a response. At the latest within seven working days, the Chairman of the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) should select a panel of judges, consisting of one chairperson and two members. The decision of the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) can be appealed to the Supreme Court at the latest 14 working days after the court decision is notified to the parties.

The decision of the Industrial Relations Court (PHI) is binding if there is no written request of appeal submitted by any of the parties within 14 days.


II.  Resignation

Under the Labor Law No. 13/2003 there are two types of resignations. The first one type is voluntary resignation as stipulates on Article 162 of Labor Law No. 13/2003. Workers who want to resign from a company should submit a resignation letter 30 days prior the last day of employment. The second type is qualified as resign. Article 168 of Labor Law No. 13/2003 stipulated that when workers absent from work without specific written reason for five consecutive days, a company can qualifies that workers in question are resigned. For the second type of resignation, a company should properly summon the workers in writing to come back to work before qualifies workers are resigning.

Labor Law No. 13/2003 does not specifically stipulate “qualify as resign” required a decision of the Industrial Relations Court (PHI). Nonetheless, there is other legal opinion stating that although absent for five consecutive days without written reason is qualified as resign, the word qualify implies that it is not a voluntary resignation. In addition the Labor Law No. 13/2003 on Article 168 verse (3) also implying that qualifies as resign as dismissal of employment. This legal opinion then states that a decision may not be needed; however, a registration of dismissal of employment agreement between a company and worker who qualified as resign should be submitted to the Industrial Relations Court (PHI), similar as collective employment dismissal agreement.
Workers who voluntarily resign or qualify as resign are entitled for compensation pay as stipulated on Article 156 verse (2) and separation or detachment money. The compensation pay that the dismissed worker shall includes

a. Annual leaves that have not expired and not have taken.
b. Costs or expenses for transporting the worker and his or her family back to the point of hire.
c. Compensation for housing allowance, medical and health care allowance is determined at 15% (fifteen percent) of the severance pay and or reward for years of service pay for those who are eligible.
d. Other compensations that are stipulated under the work agreement, company regulations or collective bargaining agreements.

In 2005, the Ministry of Manpower issued a Circulation Letter No. 600/2005 which states that workers who resigned do not get severance payment and reward for years of service pay (as Labor Law No. 13/2003 stipulates only dismissed or terminated workers the payment in question); thus, workers will not get replacement housing and care as well as treatment provision (amount of 15%) in Article 156 verse (4) point c. The Circulation Letter has not yet revoked. As Circular Letter is not part of Indonesia legal hierarchy, but it is adhered and imposed by Local Manpower officials, any issue on the different interpretations of the Circular Letter No. 600/2005 should be resolved by the Industrial Relations Court (PHI)

Monday, September 17, 2018

Dasar Hukum e-Tilang yang Bakal Diuji Coba di Sudirman-Thamrin Pada Oktober 2018


Dasar Hukum e-Tilang yang Bakal Diuji Coba di Sudirman-Thamrin Pada Oktober 2018
Hukum Online : Direktorat Lalu-lintas Polda Metro Jaya akan melaksanakan tilang elektronik atau Electronic Traffic Law Enforcement (e-Tilang) pada awal Oktober 2018. Menurut Direktur Lalu-lintas Polda Metro Jaya, Komisaris Besar Polisi Yusuf, uji coba akan dilakukan di beberapa titik sepanjang Jalan MH Thamrin dan Jalan Jenderal Sudirman.

"Kami akan ujicobakan beberapa titik di sepanjang Jalan MH Thamrin dan Jalan Jenderal Sudirman," Kombes Pol Yusuf, seperti dilansir Antara, di Jakarta Sabtu (15/9).

Yusuf mengatakan, uji coba tilang elektronik itu mengandalkan kamera pemantau berteknologi canggih yang mampu menangkap gambar atau tampakan nomor polisi kendaraan di layar monitor secara jelas dan memiliki resolusi tinggi.

Diungkapkan Yusuf, kamera pemantau itu secara otomatis mencari dan menangkap data identitas kendaraan yang melanggar aturan berlalu-lintas. Kemudian, data itu dikirim ke pusat data server Polda Metro Jaya; lalu petugas akan mengkonfirmasi melalui surat atau telepon seluler pemilik kendaraan itu untuk memberitahukan surat bukti pelanggaran (tilang).


Sejauh ini, Yusuf mengungkapkan, sejumlah kamera pengawas telah tersedia dan diujicobakan selanjutnya alat itu akan dipasang pada persimpangan sepanjang Jalan Thamrin-Jalan Sudirman. Pada tahap awal, polisi akan menyosialisasikan pemberlakuan tilang elektronik selama satu bulan sebelum dilakukan penegakan hukum.

Menanggapi akan dilaksanakannya e-Tilang, Anggota DPRD DKI Jakarta Steven Setiabudi Musa mengatakan penerapan sistem tilang elektronik harus didukung oleh kesiapan sumber daya manusia (SDM) dan infrastruktur yang bagus.

"SDM harus mendukung dan siap dengan sistem E-tle, kalau infrastruktur siap tapi SDM tidak, maka takkan berguna juga," ujarnya seperti dilansir Antara di Jakarta pada hari Senin (17/9).

Steven melanjutkan e-Tilang akan berlaku dalam jangka waktu panjang jika pengawasan dan pelaksanaannya konsisten. Disinggung mengenai keefektifan e-Tilang, Steven berujar bisa jadi sistem akan berjalan efektif.

"Tilang elektronik itu mudah, seperti di Singapura. Dari kamera pengawas maka akan ketahuan pelanggar lalu lintas, nantinya surat tilang akan diantar petugas ke rumah pelanggar tersebut," katanya.

Sementara itu, Indonesia Police Watch (IPW) mendukug langkah Polri menerapkan tilang elektronik bagi pengendara yang melanggar rambu lalu lintas. "Program tilang elektronik memang harus sudah dilakukan Polri," kata Ketua Presidium IPW Neta S Pane, seperti dilansir Antara di Jakarta Minggu (16/9).


Neta menyebutkan penerapan tilang elektronik lebih siap di Bandung dan Surabaya dibanding Jakarta lantaran sarana dan prasarana termasuk alat pemantau lalu lintas sudah sangat memadai. "Seperti Jakarta perlu penambahan untuk melengkapi infrastruktur pendukung tilang elektronik," tutur Neta.

Neta menuturkan peralatan pendukung tilang elektronik cukup sederhana seperti kamera pemantau beresolusi tinggi, server, monitor pemantau di polda, dan petugas yang mengirimkan surat tilang ke alamat pemilik kendaraan atau pesan singkat.

Neta mengatakan penerapan tilang elektronik memberikan dampak positif dan membiasakan petugas maupun masyarakat memanfaatkan sistem teknologi elektronik. Menurutnya, penambahan jumlah anggota Polri untuk mengimbangi pertumbuhan penduduk tidak masuk akal sehingga perlu memanfaatkan teknologi.

"Tilang elektronik bagian dari perkembangan sistem IT harus dimanfaatkan menumbuhkembangkan budaya IT di Polri," ujar Neta.

Penerapan tilang elektronik juga diungkapkan Neta akan menghilangkan "budaya" pungutan liar atau transaksional terhadap pengendara yang melanggar. Namun Neta mengingatkan agar Polri secara rutin menjaga dan merawat insfrastruktur tilang elektronik, serta memperbaiki database pemilik kendaraan yang belum balik nama.

Sedangkan pengamat transportasi dari Forum Warga Kota Jakarta, Azas Tigor Nainggolan, menilai sistem tilang elektronik dapat membantu mengurangi kecelakaan lalu lintas. "Untuk mengurangi kecelakaan lalu lintas dengan kondisi Jakarta yang seperti ini, sudah seharusnya diberlakukan sistem tilang elektronik," ujar Tigor seperti dilansir Antara, di Jakarta, Senin (17/9).


Tigor mengatakan, Jakarta sebagai kota metropolitan dengan jumlah kendaraan yang meningkat sudah sepantasnya mulai menerapkan tilang elektronik. Namun dia menilai tilang elektronik terlambat dilakukan.

"Ini bagus dan sudah saatnya. Tapi saya pikir ini sudah terlambat, karena di negara lain dengan kondisi yang sama sudah lama sekali menerapkannya," tambah dia.

Di sisi lain, Tigor menilai penerapan tilang elektronik memberi keuntungan lebih. Misalnya, tidak memerlukan banyak personel, tetapi penegakan hukum terhadap pelanggar aturan lalu lintas bisa lebih adil. Sebab, tidak ada satup un pelanggar yang dapat lolos dari pantauan kamera pengintai.

"Biasanya secara manual oleh polisi, itu kan punya banyak keterbatasan. Tilang elektronik bisa membuatnya lebih cepat dan adil. Dengan begini, pengemudi akan berhati-hati dan tidak akan melanggar dan dampaknya akan berkurang kecelakaan," jelasnya. Tigor pun menyarankan agar tilang elektronik tersebut seharusnya diterapkan secara permanen.

Mengenai dasar hukum tilang elektronik, pernah diulas klinik hukumonlineberjudul Tentang Tilang Elektronik. Dijelaskan bahwa dasar e-Tilang dapat dilihat dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 22 Tahun 2009 tentang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan (LLAJ) serta Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 80 Tahun 2012tentang Tata Cara Pemeriksaan Kendaraan Bermotor di Jalan dan Penindakan Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan.

Dalam Pasal 272 UU LLAJ menyatakan bahwa untuk mendukung kegiatan penindakan pelanggaran di bidang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan, dapat digunakan peralatan elektronik. Hasil penggunaan peralatan elektronik ini dapat digunakan sebagai alat bukti di pengadilan. Yang dimaksud dengan "peralatan elektronik" adalah alat perekam kejadian untuk menyimpan informasi.

Mengenai apa yang tertulis dalam Pasal 272 UU LLAJ kemudian diatur lebih lanjut dalam Pasal 23 PP 80/2012, yang mengatur bahwa penindakan Pelanggaran Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan didasarkan atas hasil:


a.    temuan dalam proses Pemeriksaan Kendaraan Bermotor di Jalan;
b.    laporan; dan/atau
c.    rekaman peralatan elektronik.

Penindakan Pelanggaran Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan yang didasarkan atas hasil rekaman peralatan elektronik, Petugas Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia atau Penyidik Pegawai Negeri Sipil di bidang Lalu Lintas dan Angkutan Jalan dapat menerbitkan Surat Tilang. Surat Tilang tersebut harus dilampiri dengan bukti rekaman alat penegakan hukum elektronik.

Surat Tilang disampaikan kepada pelanggar sebagai pemberitahuan dan panggilan untuk hadir dalam sidang pengadilan. Dalam hal pelanggar tidak dapat memenuhi panggilan untuk hadir dalam sidang pengadilan, pelanggar dapat menitipkan uang denda melalui bank yang ditunjuk oleh Pemerintah. (ANT)

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Terminating an Employment Relationship in Indonesia


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Under Law No. 13 of 2003 regarding Labor (the “Labor Law”) and other prevailing labour laws and regulations, employment-at-will and termination upon simple notice are not recognized in Indonesia. Employment terminations must follow the procedures under the Labor Law and Law No. 2 of 2004 regarding Industrial Relations Dispute Settlement (“Law No. 2”).
Before terminating an employment relationship, the parties (employee, employer and, if applicable, a labour union) are required to meet in an attempt to reach an amicable termination settlement. This meeting is known as bipartite negotiation. Such negotiations should be completed within 30 days, and minutes of each negotiation must be drafted and signed by all parties.
If a settlement is reached, a Mutual Termination Agreement should be executed and then registered at the relevant labour court. A settlement that is documented as a resignation does not require registration.
If the negotiations fail, the employer or employee may file the dispute with the relevant office of the Ministry of Manpower (“MOM”), along with supporting documents to show that bipartite negotiations have been attempted. A manpower official will ask both parties whether the dispute should be resolved through non-binding conciliation with private conciliators, mediation with a MOM mediator, or arbitration. The parties should respond within seven days, and if they do not, the dispute automatically will go to mediation.
If the non-binding written recommendation of the mediator is rejected, then the matter must be brought by either party to the labour court.

Terminations

Termination of an employment relationship by the employer, subject to the approval of the labour court, is possible:
  • For “ordinary” cause (i.e., violation of the employment contract, company regulation, or collective labour agreement) after three warning letters;
  • For “serious” cause, including theft, providing false information harmful to the company, dangerous or immoral conduct, etc. (although this ground has been complicated by a decision of the Constitutional Court);
  • In the context of a merger, closure, force majeure, bankruptcy, illness, the death of the employee, extended absence, etc.
Termination of an employee is not permitted in the following circumstances:
  • Not being able to work due to illness, based on a doctor's recommendation, for a period of up to 12 consecutive months;
  • Not being able to work while fulfilling an obligation to the State pursuant to prevailing laws and regulations;
  • Performing mandatory religious services;
  • Getting married;
  • Childbirth, miscarriage, or nursing a baby;
  • Establishing a workers/labour union, becoming a member or part of the management of a workers/labour union, or conducting union activities outside office hours or during office hours with the agreement of the employer, or pursuant to the provisions of the employment agreement, company regulation, or CLA;
  • Reporting the employer to the competent authorities citing the commission of a crime;
  • Due to ideology, religion, political inclination, tribe, race, group, gender, physical condition, or marital status;
  • Becoming permanently disabled, injured by a work accident, or sick due to working conditions for an indeterminate period as confirmed by a doctor’s certificate.



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Profesi Pengacara, Advokat, PPAT dan Notaris


Image result for lawyer notary
   
   Prosedur untuk menjadi Advokat, Notaris dan Pejabat Pembuat Akta Tanah (PPAT) menurut peraturan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Sedangkan untuk pengacara praktik yang telah diangkat sebelum disahkannya UU No. 18 Tahun 2003 tentang Advokat (UU Advokat) dinyatakan sebagai advokat (pasal 32 ayat [1] dan ayat [2] UU Advokat).
 
I.         Prosedur menjadi Advokat (menurut UU Advokat):
a.      Persyaratan:
-          warga negara Republik Indonesia;
-          bertempat tinggal di Indonesia;
-          tidak berstatus sebagai pegawai negeri atau pejabat negara;
-          berusia sekurang-kurangnya 25 (dua puluh lima) tahun;
-          berijazah sarjana yang berlatar belakang pendidikan tinggi hukum
-          mengikuti pendidikan khusus profesi Advokat yang dilaksanakan oleh Organisasi Advokat
-          lulus ujian yang diadakan oleh Organisasi Advokat;
-          magang sekurang-kurangnya 2 (dua) tahun terus menerus pada kantor Advokat;
-          tidak pernah dipidana karena melakukan tindak pidana kejahatan yang diancam dengan pidana penjara 5 (lima) tahun atau lebih;
-          berperilaku baik, jujur, bertanggung jawab, adil, dan mempunyai integritas yang tinggi.
b.      Pengangkatan:
-          Pengangkatan Advokat dilakukan oleh Organisasi Advokat
-          Salinan surat keputusan pengangkatan Advokat disampaikan kepada Mahkamah Agung dan Menteri Hukum dan HAM
-          Sebelum menjalankan profesinya, Advokat wajib bersumpah menurut agamanya atau berjanji dengan sungguh-sungguh di sidang terbuka Pengadilan Tinggi di wilayah domisili hukumnya
-          Salinan berita acara sumpah oleh Panitera Pengadilan Tinggi yang bersangkutan dikirimkan kepada Mahkamah Agung, Menteri, dan Organisasi Advokat.
 
 
II.       Prosedur menjadi Notaris (menurut UU No. 30 Tahun 2004 tentang Jabatan Notaris):
a.      Persyaratan:
-          warga negara Indonesia;
-          bertakwa kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa;
-          berumur paling sedikit 27 (dua puluh tujuh) tahun;
-          sehat jasmani dan rohani;
-          berijazah sarjana hukum dan lulusan jenjang strata dua kenotariatan;
-          telah menjalani magang atau nyata-nyata telah bekerja sebagai karyawan Notaris dalam waktu 12 (dua belas) bulan berturut-turut pada kantor Notaris atas prakarsa sendiri atau atas rekomendasi Organisasi Notaris setelah lulus strata dua kenotariatan; dan

-          tidak berstatus sebagai pegawai negeri, pejabat negara, advokat, atau tidak sedang memangku jabatan lain yang oleh undang-undang dilarang untuk dirangkap dengan jabatan Notaris.
 
b.      Prosedur pengangkatan:
i)        Membuat surat permohonan pengangkatan Notaris dan melampirkan:
1.      Foto copy yang disahkan notaris :
-          Ijazah Pendidikan Spesialis Notariat atau Magister Kenotariatan
-          Surat tanda telah mengikuti pelatihan teknis
-          KTP dan Akte Kelahiran
-          Akta perkawinan
-          Nomor Pokok Wajib Pajak (NPWP) atas nama pemohon
-          Piagam lulus ujian yang diselenggarakan oleh organisasi notaris
-          Sertifikat pelatihan yang diselenggarakan oleh Ditjen AHU
2.      Surat pernyataan:
-          tidak merangkap jabatan kecuali sebagai pejabat pembuat akta tanah
-          bermaterai cukup yang menyatakan bersedia ditempatkan di seluruh wilayah Indonesia
-          bermaterai cukup yang menyatakan tentang kesediaan untuk ditunjuk menampung protokol notaris lain
3.      Surat keterangan:
-          dari notaris bahwa telah mengikuti magang di kantor notaris selama 2 tahun berturut-turut setelah lulus Pendidikan Spesialis Notariat atau Magister Magister Kenotariatan yang disahkan oleh organisasi profesi Notaris setempat
-          Kelakuan Baik dari Kepolisian
-          Sehat jasmani dan rohani dari dokter pemerintah
4.      Daftar riwayat hidup yang dibuat oleh pemohon dengan menggunakan formulir yang disediakan oleh Depkumham
5.      Pas foto terbaru berwarna ukuran 3x4 sebanyak 4 lembar
 
ii)      Mengajukan surat permohonan tersebut kepada Direktur Jenderal Administrasi Hukum Umum dan Direktur Perdata.
iii)     Surat keputusan pengangkatan selaku notaris dan Berita Acara sumpah notaris dikeluarkan Menteri hukum dan HAM
 
c.      Pasca pengangkatan:
Dalam jangka waktu 30 (tiga puluh) hari terhitung sejak tanggal pengambilan sumpah/janji jabatan Notaris, yang bersangkutan wajib:
-          menjalankan jabatannya dengan nyata;
-          menyampaikan berita acara sumpah/janji jabatan Notaris kepada Menteri, Organisasi Notaris, dan Majelis Pengawas Daerah; dan
-          menyampaikan alamat kantor, contoh tanda tangan, dan paraf, serta teraan cap/stempel jabatan Notaris berwarna merah kepada Menteri dan pejabat lain yang bertanggung jawab di bidang agraria pertanahan, Organisasi Notaris, ketua pengadilan negeri, Majelis Pengawas Daerah, serta bupati atau walikota di tempat Notaris diangkat
 
III.             Prosedur menjadi PPAT (menurut PP No. 37 Tahun 1998 tentang Peraturan Jabatan Pejabat Pembuat Akta Tanah):
a. Persyaratan:
-    berkewarganegaraan Indonesia;
-    berusia sekurang-kurangnya 30 (tiga puluh) tahun;
-    berkelakuan baik yang dinyatakan dengan surat keterangan yang dibuat oleh Instansi Kepolisian setempat;
-    belum pernah dihukum penjara karena melakukan kejahatan berdasarkan putusan Pengadilan yang telah memperoleh kekuatan hukum tetap;
-    sehat jasmani dan rohani;
-    lulusan program pendidikan spesialis notariat atau program pendidikan khusus PPAT yang diselenggarakan oleh lembaga pendidikan tinggi;
-    lulus ujian yang diselenggarakan oleh Kantor Menteri Negara Agraria/Badan Pertanahan Nasional.
 
b. Pengangkatan dan pasca-pengangkatan:
-    Sebelum menjalankan jabatannya PPAT dan PPAT Sementara wajib mengangkat sumpah jabatan PPAT di hadapan Kepala Kantor Pertanahan Kabupaten/ Kotamadya di daerah kerja PPAT yang bersangkutan
-    Untuk keperluan pengangkatan sumpah sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 15 PPAT wajib melapor kepada Kepala Kantor Pertanahan mengenai pengangkatannya sebagai PPAT.
-    Apabila laporan tidak dilakukan dalam jangka waktu 3 (tiga) bulan terhitung sejak tanggal ditetapkannya surat keputusan pengangkatan yang bersangkutan sebagai PPAT, maka keputusan pengangkatan tersebut batal demi hukum.
-    Kepala Kantor Pertanahan melaksanakan pengambilan sumpah jabatan dalam waktu 1 (satu) bulan setelah diterimanya laporan sebagaimana dimaksud pada ayat (1).
-    Sumpah jabatan PPAT dan PPAT Sementara dituangkan dalam suatu berita acara yang ditandatangani oleh PPAT atau PPAT Sementara yang bersangkutan, Kepala Kantor Pertanahan Kabupaten/Kotamadya dan para saksi.

 
2.      Notaris dapat merangkap jabatan sebagai PPAT dalam lingkup wilayah jabatannya (lihat pasal 17 huruf g UU Notaris), tapi Notaris tidak dapat merangkap jabatan sebagai advokat (lihat pasal 3 huruf g jo. pasal 17 huruf e UU Notaris). PPAT dapat merangkap jabatan sebagai notaris (pasal 7 ayat [1] PP No. 37 Tahun 1998), tapi PPAT tidak dapat merangkap jabatan sebagai advokat (pasal 7 ayat [2] huruf a PP No. 37 Tahun 1998).
 
Demikian sejauh yang kami ketahui. Semoga bermanfaat.
 
Dasar hukum:
  1. Undang-Undang No. 18 Tahun 2003 tentang Advokat
  2. Undang-Undang No. 30 Tahun 2004 tentang Jabatan Notaris
  3. Peraturan Pemerintah No. 37 Tahun 1998 tentang Peraturan Jabatan Pejabat Pembuat Akta Tanah